Population genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) gene in Equatorial Guinea.

TitlePopulation genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) gene in Equatorial Guinea.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsYang P-K, Liang X-Y, Lin M, Chen J-T, Huang H-Y, Lin L-Y, Ehapo CSalas, Eyi UMonsuy, Zheng Y-Z, De Xie D-, He J-Q, Mo H-T, Chen X-Y, Liu X-Z, Wu Y-E
JournalMalar J
Date Published2021 Sep 19
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Antigens, Protozoan, Child, Child, Preschool, Equatorial Guinea, Humans, Infant, Malaria, Falciparum, Middle Aged, Plasmodium falciparum, Polymorphism, Genetic, Protozoan Proteins, Selection, Genetic, Young Adult

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (PfEBA-175) is a candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine, while various polymorphisms and dimorphism have prevented to development of effective vaccines based on this gene. This study aimed to investigate the dimorphism of PfEBA-175 on both the Bioko Island and continent of Equatorial Guinea, as well as the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of global PfEBA-175.METHODS: The allelic dimorphism of PfEBA-175 region II of 297 bloods samples from Equatorial Guinea in 2018 and 2019 were investigated by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Polymorphic characteristics and the effect of natural selection were analyzed using MEGA 7.0, DnaSP 6.0 and PopART programs. Protein function prediction of new amino acid mutation sites was performed using PolyPhen-2 and Foldx program.RESULTS: Both Bioko Island and Bata district populations, the frequency of the F-fragment was higher than that of the C-fragment of PfEBA-175 gene. The PfEBA-175 of Bioko Island and Bata district isolates showed a high degree of genetic variability and heterogeneity, with π values of 0.00407 & 0.00411 and Hd values of 0.958 & 0.976 for nucleotide diversity, respectively. The values of Tajima's D of PfEBA-175 on Bata district and Bioko Island were 0.56395 and - 0.27018, respectively. Globally, PfEBA-175 isolates from Asia were more diverse than those from Africa and South America, and genetic differentiation quantified by the fixation index between Asian and South American countries populations was significant (FST > 0.15, P < 0.05). A total of 310 global isolates clustered in 92 haplotypes, and only one cluster contained isolates from three continents. The mutations A34T, K109E, D278Y, K301N, L305V and D329N were predicted as probably damaging.CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the dimorphism of F-fragment PfEBA-175 was remarkably predominant in the study area. The distribution patterns and genetic diversity of PfEBA-175 in Equatorial Guinea isolates were similar another region isolates. And the levels of recombination events suggested that natural selection and intragenic recombination might be the main drivers of genetic diversity in global PfEBA-175. These results have important reference value for the development of blood-stage malaria vaccine based on this antigen.

Alternate JournalMalar J
PubMed ID34538247
PubMed Central IDPMC8451130