|Title||In silico design of potentially functional artificial metallo-haloalkane dehalogenase containing catalytic zinc.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Ang T-F, Salleh ABakar, Normi YM, Leow TChor|
|Date Published||2018 Jul|
Artificial metalloenzymes are unique as they combine the good features of homogeneous and enzymatic catalysts, and they can potentially improve some difficult catalytic assays. This study reports a method that can be used to create an artificial metal-binding site prior to proving it to be functional in a wet lab. Haloalkane dehalogenase was grafted into a metal-binding site to form an artificial metallo-haloalkane dehalogenase and was studied for its potential functionalities in silico. Computational protocols regarding dynamic metal docking were studied using native metalloenzymes and functional artificial metalloenzymes. Using YASARA Structure, a simulation box covering template structure was created to be filled with water molecules followed by one mutated water molecule closest to the metal-binding site to metal ion. A simple energy minimization step was subsequently run using an AMBER force field to allow the metal ion to interact with the metal-binding residues. Long molecular dynamic simulation using YASARA Structure was performed to analyze the stability of the metal-binding site and the distance between metal-binding residues. Metal ions fluctuating around 2.0 Å across a 20 ns simulation indicated a stable metal-binding site. Metal-binding energies were predicted using FoldX, with a native metalloenzyme (carbonic anhydrase) scoring 18.0 kcal/mol and the best mutant model (C1a) scoring 16.4 kcal/mol. Analysis of the metal-binding site geometry was performed using CheckMyMetal, and all scores for the metalloenzymes and mutant models were in an acceptable range. Like native metalloenzymes, the metal-binding site of C1a was supported by residues in the second coordination shell to maintain a more coordinated metal-binding site. Short-chain multihalogenated alkanes (1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane) were able to dock in the active site of C1a. The halides of the substrate were in contact with both the metal and halide-stabilizing residues, thus indicating a better stabilization of the substrate. The simple catalytic mechanism proposed is that the metal ion interacted with halogen and polarized the carbon-halogen bond, thus making the alpha carbon susceptible to attack by nucleophilic hydroxide. The interaction between halogen in the metal ion and halide-stabilizing residues may help to improve the stabilization of the substrate-enzyme complex and reduce the activation energy. This study reports a modified dynamic metal-docking protocol and validation tests to verify the metal-binding site. These approaches can be applied to design different kinds of artificial metalloenzymes or metal-binding sites.
|Alternate Journal||3 Biotech|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC6042250|